American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Babies and toddlers should learn from play, not screens. Science Daily.
This article talks about the AAP’s policy statement from 1999, which was the first guide to media use on children under age two. Dr. Brown, who is on the AAP council on communications and media, offered some of his thoughts on how the new policy is answering some questions about digital media and young children under the age of two that could not be answered before due to lack of research and information.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Family Media Plan. (n.d.).
Explained what a Family Media Plan was, and how families should utilize it when deciding to come up with their own plan.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. (2001). American Academy of Pediatrics: children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics. 107: 423-426.
This is the 2001 statement from the Committee on Public Education. It describes the positive and negative health effects of television on children. Aggressive behavior, substance abuse, obesity and decreased school performance are all considered. More focused on television than overall digital media use.
Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M., Cross, C., American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2593
This technical report talks about the new policy statements from the AAP. As well as identifying how media use is drastically changing from back in the day. Touches on what media is most popular and “gamification.” Runs through info about each of the age groups and how they use their media.
Choudhury, S., McKinney, K. A. (2013). Digital media, the developing brain and the interpretive plasticity of neuroplasticity. Transcultural Psychiatry. 50(2). 192-215.
This article is heavy with more scientific information that talks about young people becoming desensitized, depressed and attention deficient because of cyber technology. It brings the historical pattern of technology-related anxiety and how our society doesn’t always know how to deal with new technologies or how to control it.
Domahidi, E., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2012). Real friends and virtual life? Computer games as foci of activity for social community building. Conference Papers — International Communication Association, 1-35.
This source talks about the idea of real world friends playing in a virtual world. It challenges a lot of the research that I gathered and gives life on a different perspective on digital media. The conference papers fail to acknowledge a lot of the consequences of too much digital media but it was still a useful source to shine light on the positives of digital media in our society.
Jung, Brian. (2011).The Negative Effect of Social Media on Society and Individuals. Chron.
This website provided a few examples of how people can be negatively affected by social media. It provided findings from a study at Cornell that showed how the causal connections we form online prevent us from putting energy into our real life connections.
Kahn, A. S., & Williams, D. (2016). We’re All in This (Game) Together. Communication Research, 43(4), 487-517. doi:10.1177/0093650215617504
This source explores the social skills gained while playing online games. The communication skills that can and cannot transfer over to real life applications of communication and team problem-solving.
Molyneux, L., Vasudevan, K., & Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2015). Gaming Social Capital: Exploring Civic Value in Multiplayer Video Games. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(4), 381-399. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12123
This source covers specifically online multiplayer games and how they affect people psychologically. The article mentions the idea of Substitution Theory and explains the logic behind. Concerns of such theory are mentioned and the varying degrees of the theory.
Moreno, M., Chassiakos, Y., Cross, C., American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Media use in school-aged children and adolescents. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2592
This policy statement and recommendation list is again from the American Academy of Pediatrics but it addresses the 5-18 year-old age group. It brings up some of the positives of digital media, like being exposed to new ideas, but also touches on the negatives on physical and mental health and well-being. Mentions the challenges parents have on monitoring their teenagers and children’s media use throughout the day. At the end it again lists off recommendations to the pediatricians, families, governmental organizations as well as the industry.
Nadworny, E., & Kamenetz, A. (Eds.). (2016). Real Parents, Real Talk about Kids and Screens.
Showed the results of a study done on parents who have kids. Revealed how long the average parent with kids spends in front of a screen. Also touched upon the concerns some parents have regarding their children and technology.
Nakamura, Lisa. [TedxTalks]. (2011, Oct. 11). TEDxUIllinois – Dr.Lisa Nakamura – 5 Types of Online Racism and Why You Should Care.
This was the Ted Talk that talked about the “GayBoy” experience. This experiment is what connected the contagion theory to online communities. In this video, it’s easy to see how fast toxicity can spread through an online community.
Radesky, J., Christakis, D., American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Media and young minds. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2591
This is the policy statement and recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics that addresses infants and toddlers as well as preschool media and learning. Along with this, the statement talks about the health and developmental concerns that they have found through their research. By the end it lists off specific recommendations for pediatricians of these infants and toddlers, families of the children, and the industry providing the technologies.
Rapp, A., Beitelspacher, L.S., Grewal, D. (January 27th, 2013). Understanding Social Media Effects across seller, retailer, and consumer interactions. Journal of the academy of Marketing science, 41, 547-566.
This website introduced me to the contagion theory. This theory is the idea that through animosity, people are more likely to partake in riotous or negative behavior. This applies to online mediums and how it’s easy for things like racism and homophobia to spread.
Redmond, Dustin L., “The effect of video games on family communication and interaction” (2010). Graduate Theses and Dissertations. p. 11614.
The bonds between family members can be strengthened by playing video games with each other. Experiencing a new environment in a video game can bring families together.
The effects of passion for MMORPGs on interpersonal relationships. (2012). Conference Papers — International Communication Association, 1-24.
This sources talks about the positives of real world friends and also acknowledging the consequences of too much exposure. It talks about the Substitution Theory without actually calling it that. Suggesting that the theory is a general consensus throughout digital media studies and research.
Vandewater, E. A., Rideout, V. J., Wartella, E. A. (2007). Digital childhood: electronic media and technology use among infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Pediatrics. 119(5). doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-1804
This was a study done in 2007 to see and describe media access/use among US children aged 0-6. The goal was to assess how many young children fall within the American Academy of Pediatrics media-use guidelines at the time. Info with more numeric back to it are provided with this article.
Wera, Julien. (2008, April 1). Online Community Management: Communication through Gamers. Gamasutra.
This article gave me insight into what it takes to manage a community. It is written from the perspective of someone who has experience in managing communities. It discusses how to promote positivity and the minutia required to speak to community members. It talks about the fragile relationship between players and developers that the manager has to nurture and grow.